2015 Abstracts

Policing in times of uncertainty: Challenges of Integrated Security

Policing and European Studies

UACES crn Policing and European Studies

Conference Friday 1st May 2015

@ the University of Abertay Dundee

9.30

10.25

Research Session 1: Post-Lisbon

Location: 1006 Old College

Chair: Peter Wilson

1. Saskia Hufnagel

EU Integrated and Re-Integrated Security: the Position of the UK after the Opt-Out.

2. Maria O’Neill

The European Investigation Order, the next stage in cross border law enforcement.

1. The European Internal Security Strategy (ISS): an analysis of legal discourse on the development of the European Union legal framework in a post-Lisbon era.

John Olivel (cancelled)

E-mail: jolivel.jo@gmail.com

The development of the EU’s new Internal Security Strategy (ISS) brought a new hybrid structure, and legal enhancement but also challenges, which from the beginning should be transferred to the organizational and legal systems of the EU States. The provisions of art. 67-89 TFEU provides new implications and the need for their multi-level implementations. However, a major drawback is the lack of references to the implementation of the national strategy on the side of each Member State. Regulatory issues related to horizontal effect with comparative evaluation of the legal and institutional framework focuses on the impact of the ISS common principles and guidelines with an appraisal of the achievements of the art. 68 TFEU, and highlights a number of states’ reluctance to collaborate, in certain fields of cooperation. The analysis reviews the literature and provisions of the subject, in the area of legal ramifications which gives the results of certain importance of the provisions of communitisation, and the leading role played by the EU institutions. This paper critically analyzes conclusions from the reviews of reports of the ISS 2011-2014 and in summary presents obstacles that negatively affect ISS and full cooperation between the Commission, Member States and the European Parliament.

1. EU Integrated and Re-Integrated Security: The Position of the UK after the Opt-Out.

Saskia Hufnagel, Queen Mary University of London, UK.

E-mail: s.m.hufnagel@qmul.ac.uk

This presentation analyses UK involvement in EU police and justice cooperation. It addresses the implications of the UK opt-out with regard to the Lisbon Protocol 36. Article 10(4) of this Protocol provides that the UK may, at any time up to 31 May 2014, choose not to accept the jurisdiction of the Court of Justice of the European Union and the enforcement powers of the Commission in relation to these pre-Lisbon measures. As a result of the opt-out, all former policing and criminal justice instruments adopted under the ‘third pillar’ that have not been amended, repealed or replaced since the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty cease to apply to the UK. The UK now aims to re-join 35 measures that have been considered indispensable for UK security.

The presentation provides an overview of police and justice cooperation strategies regulated by EU legislation and in particular mechanisms employed between the UK and other EU member states that would be affected by the opt out. Rather than replicating the UK government reports focusing on UK police and justice official’s input to analyse opt-out implications, the research for this paper is based on interviews with police and justice officials from member states cooperating with the UK. Two particular areas covered are the UK participation in Joint Investigation Teams (JITs) and justice cooperation through the European Arrest Warrant. It will be discussed in particular what alternatives remain to cooperation, if an opt-in is not possible.

2. The European Investigation Order, the next stage in cross border law enforcement.

Maria O’Neill, Abertay University, Dundee, UK.

E-mail: m.oneill@abertay.ac.uk

The EU enacted the European Investigation Order (EIO) in April 2014. Member states need to comply with its provisions by May 2017. While the UK has opted in, both the Republic of Ireland and Denmark are remaining out of this development. Described as part of judicial cooperation in criminal matters, it will have a significant impact on police evidence gathering. While the EIO states that it “establishes a single regime for obtaining evidence”, it does not change the rules on cross border covert surveillance, or the rules applied when operating a formal joint investigation team, and the gathering of evidence within that team. This development brings with it new legal and practitioner challenges, to include the issue of resourcing and time limits. The list of crimes covered by the EIO has a tight co-relation to the list of crimes not requiring a double criminality test under the European Arrest Warrant. He EIO will therefore be of relevance to both organised crime and standard police operations. This paper will critically analyse the impact that the EIO will have on the future of cross border police cooperation.

10.55

12:15

Research Session 2: Intelligence

Location: 1006 Old College

Chair: Fiona Grant

1. Francesca Galli and Celine Cocq

The use of data retention for the investigation and prosecution of serious crime. What next after the CJEU judgment in the Digital Rights case?

2. Mo Egan

Policing intermediaries in the EU anti-money laundering framework.

3. Vincent C. Figliomeni

Public opinion of immigrant crime in Italy and perception of public security.

1. The use of data retention for the investigation and prosecution of serious crime. What next after the CJEU judgment in the Digital Rights case?

Francesca Galli,  University of Maastricht, Netherlands and and Celine Cocq, Institut d’Etudes Européennes, Belgium.

E-mail: francesca.galli81@gmail.comceline.cocq@ulb.ac.be

A huge amount of information is nowadays retained by private actors such as network and service providers. Information can be accessed and used by different actors of the criminal justice system for the purposes of investigating and prosecuting serious crimes, including terrorism.

Following a number of deadly terrorist attacks EU Member States negotiated Directive 2006/24/EC. Implementation has been difficult and lead to controversial judgements both at national and at EU level concerning e.g. the compliance with privacy and data protection and the legal basis.

The CJEU ruling of 8 April 2014 in the Digital Rights case constitutes a turning point. Invalidating the directive the judgement leads to a legal void and chaotic situation.

The ruling has highlighted the need for the EU policy maker(s) to take action as soon as possible. In the meantime, many Member States are at present going back to pre-existing national regimes, which go well beyond EU requirements.

This article engages in a comparative study of the use of retained data within selected national jurisdictions (Ireland, Austria and the UK) for the purpose of investigating and prosecuting serious crime after the ruling of the CJEU. How does the CJEU judgement change Member States approach to data retention and the access to the data retained? Is a more human rights based approach to be adopted?

Would it be possible to formulate EU data retention provisions that would meet the stringent requirements of the judgement while acknowledging that data retention is a crucial investigation means in serious crime cases?

2. Policing intermediaries in the EU anti-money laundering framework.

Mo Egan, Abertay University, Dundee, UK.

E-mail: M.Egan@abertay.ac.uk

This paper builds on doctoral research which examined the policing of money laundering. One of the significant findings of the underpinning research was recognition of the role of private sector organisations as partners in the implementation of policing financial crime (Harvey, 2004, 2005, 2009; Verhage, 2009; Egan, 2010). Within the anti-money laundering framework contained in the 3rd Money Laundering Directive of 2005 there are broadly three accountability mechanisms that prevent private sector collusions in money laundering offences. The first is the criminalisation of principal money laundering offences. The second is the requirement to submit a suspicious activity report to the Financial Intelligence Unit (also known as Central National Unit) and the third is the sanctioning power of self-regulatory authorities. Still, the self-regulatory authorities’ role in monitoring and reporting offences demonstrates the negotiation of justice between the state’s ability to outsource aspects of policing on the one hand, and the private sector’s desire to maintain control, on the other.  Taking the case of the legal profession, this paper will focus on the role of their professional bodies in this framework and examine to what extent the proposed 4th Money Laundering Directive expands this policing role.

3. Public opinion of immigrant crime in Italy and perception of public security.

Vincent C. Figliomeni, Director, Francesco Figliomeni Social Science Research Center, Siderno (RC) Italy.

E-mail: vfiglio@tin.it

The results of a previous systematic random sample telephonic survey study (n=479) conducted in 2004 in Vicenza, a Province of Northern Italy, supported the notion that the public is exposed to exaggerated newspaper reporting of immigrant involvement in certain crimes, whereas non-immigrants, while under-emphasized in reporting, in some cases actually commit more of those crimes. The negative image of the immigrant prompts public reaction in the form of immigrant public policy limitations and may contribute to the delay in social integration and assimilation of these groups. In an ongoing effort to provide updated data for analysis of public opinion of immigrant involvement in crime, specifically as it relates to public opinion on major immigrant public policies and related issues, an updated questionnaire was employed in a systematic random sample telephonic survey (n=1088) in 2006 in Vicenza. A duplicate follow up study was completed more recently in 2013 (n=562) in Vicenza, and expanded the research to include data from the Province of Reggio Calabria in Southern Italy, also completed in 2013 (n=463). The data sets are analysed and compared to determine trends in public opinion of immigrant involvement in crime as it relates to perception of overall public security. Overall results reveal a public that is still worried about being a victim of crime, and identifies specific types of crime violations that are attributed primarily to immigrants. Perceptions on major issues regarding immigrant public policy and public opinion of immigrants and crime are examined, i.e., (1) immigrant policy controls, (2) immigrant quota’s, (3) legal immigrants’ right to vote, (4) unfavourable perception of immigrant cultural influences on Italian society, and (5) unfavourable perception that immigrant presence perpetuates criminal and terrorist activities. These research study results collectively reveal a trend in public opinion that is generally growing more favourable toward immigrants, however, the results equally demonstrate lingering signs of intolerance toward immigrants and a cautious attitude regarding immigrant increased presence and the persistence of crime and terrorism.

(CANCELLED) 3. Tracing criminal assets abroad: a multi-level and fragmented EU scenario?

Michele Simonato, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.

E-mail: michele.simonato@uni.lu

Depriving criminals of the control over the proceeds of crime is considered a priority on the national and supranational agendas. One of the main aspects of this effort is represented by ‘asset recovery’, which – according to the EU terminology – is a complex multi-phase process including financial investigations, asset freezing and management, confiscation or forfeiture, repatriation (if assets are located abroad), and disposal of recovered assets. In the last decade, the EU has undertaken many initiatives in this field; however, the overall results seem to be still unsatisfactory.

The proposed paper unfolds from some assumptions: (a) the EU has intervened so far only on some selected phases of asset recovery, namely confiscation and freezing of assets; (b) in the EU there is a great variety of procedures to assume control on the crime proceeds, and in certain cases such procedures do not fall within the realm of criminal procedure; (c) non-judicial authorities play an important role during these procedures, especially in the investigation phase.

The paper will try to answer the following questions: why is asset tracing relevant for the internal security of the EU? How should the EU intervene on the investigation phase of asset recovery? In order to answer these questions, the paper will try to elucidate who is in charge of the investigations on crime proceeds, the main powers needed to effectively trace dirty assets, as well as the main obstacles to their identification across national borders.

13.15

14.45

Research Session 3: A Borderless Europe

Location: 1006 Old College

Chair: Keith Sturrock

1. Anika Ludwig

Crime and migration in a borderless Europe.

2. Derek Johnson

Examining the spatial distribution of EU migrant criminal activity.

3. Artur Gruszczak

Establishing an EU law enforcement fusion centre. Prospects for criminal intelligence cooperation in the European Union.

1. Crime and migration in a borderless Europe.

Anika Ludwig, Northumbria University, UK.

E-mail: anika.ludwig@northumbria.ac.uk

2. Examining the spatial distribution of EU migrant criminal activity.

Derek Johnson, Northumbria University, UK.

E-mail:  derek.johnson@northumbria.ac.uk.

(Linked papers) Migration and crime: perspectives from the UK and further afield – Anika Ludwig & Derek Johnson

The nature of immigration in the UK changed following the 2004 enlargement of the European Union, which prompted large inflows from the eight new Eastern and Central European member states, and later from the two 2007 acceding countries. The impacts of this migration have generated much interest from politicians, media, academia and the public; whilst the economic impacts of the accession immigration have received substantial academic attention, the perceived relationship between European immigrants and crime has been the subject of very little academic research. The research presented here will be split into two parts, but is based on research carried out as part of a larger European study looking at improved data and intelligence sharing within and across the EU.

Firstly, Anika Ludwig will present on ‘Crime and migration in a borderless Europe’, discussing  the complexity of carrying out research on the issue of migration and crime using openly available data sources relating to social, economic and political factors from a number of EU member states.

This will be followed by Derek Johnson, who will address the ‘Spatial distribution of EU migrant criminal activity in England’ specifically. In order to do this Freedom of Information requests were utilised to collect relevant data, and Location Quotients were calculated in order to display the criminal activity of nationalities in police force areas relative to their activity nationally.

The findings from both presentations have implications for the policing of migrant communities, and for cross-border policing and intelligence sharing, both within the UK and across Europe. By providing evidence of the limited recording practices and data availability, these presentations will identify areas for improved intelligence sharing across EU borders in order to improve current knowledge of the criminality of inter-EU migrants.

3. Establishing an EU law enforcement fusion centre. Prospects for criminal intelligence cooperation in the European Union.

Artur Gruszczak, Jagiellonian University, Poland.

E-mail: artur.gruszczak@uj.edu.pl

Today’s criminal justice is increasingly dependent on large quantities of information acquired and collected by law enforcement services. Professional skills and capabilities in the field of data analysis and knowledge management are more and more considered as a required tool to conduct criminal investigations, including those of cross-border or transnational dimension. The integration and analysis of existing streams of information and data related to public order, internal and international security require the application of data fusion techniques and the setting up of tailor-made fusion centres. For now, fusion centres have been established on the national level in numerous states in Europe and North America. Given the advanced police and law enforcement cooperation across the European Union, it is legitimate to raise the issue of an EU fusion centre conceived as an advanced institutional arrangement addressing critical elements of internal security, like counterterrorism, protection of critical infrastructure, external borders, cyber-resilience etc.

The paper will take into consideration prospects for the establishment of an EU law enforcement fusion centre as a mechanism of improved criminal intelligence analysis stimulating intelligence-led policing model throughout the European Union. Given that preliminary ideas on the setting up of a European intelligence agency were eventually discarded by the leading national actors in the EU, an EU law enforcement fusion centre should be seen as a virtual networked arrangement closely connecting the existing EU agencies implementing intelligence tradecraft, namely Europol, Frontex and the EU Intelligence Analysis Centre.

15.15

16.45

Research Session 4: Trafficking in Human Beings

Location: 1004 Old College

Chair: Jonathan Mendel

1. Anna Mara Rosińska

Filling the gaps in the system of combating human trafficking in Poland.

2. Julia Muraszkiewicz

The road to human trafficking: an analysis of geographical routes used by the perpetrators within Europe.

3. Anastasia Koulouri and Alex Avramenko

Global supply chains and Human Trafficking: an unequivocal problem.

1. Filling the gaps in the system of combating human trafficking in Poland.

Anna Mara Rosińska, University of Warsaw, Poland.

E-mail: a.m.rosinska@gmail.com

This intervention is to describe  about filling the gaps in the system of combating human trafficking in Poland.

The system of combating human trafficking and forced labor in Poland has been built for many years. It is relatively effective at the very operational level in such aspects as investigation and support for victims but it is far from sufficient at the level of general concept of prevention and internal logic of the system. Looking at institutional level it is obvious that one of the law enforcement agencies existing in Poland, namely Border Guard, plays rather limited role in combating THB in comparison with its potential (the main actor is Police).

This paper will presents the results of a research conducted by Human Trafficking Studies Centre Warsaw University illustrate and  describe the problems in the identification of victims of trafficking by Border Guard in Poland.

2. The road to human trafficking: an analysis of geographical routes used by the perpetrators within Europe.

Julia Muraszkiewicz, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.

E-mail: j.muraszkiewicz@gmail.com

This paper seeks to provide an analytical framework for designing more effective laws against human trafficking. In particular it will undertake an analysis of geographical routes used by the perpetrators within Europe. Literature considers that trafficking routes are subject to changes due to political, economic, social or other conditions, which impact human trafficking flows. It is also possible to argue argue that human trafficking routes follow legal product trades routes, equally we can contemplate that human trafficking routes could be linked to illegal migration routes or to flows of people migration for work. Whatever the theory it is inescapable that in order to prevent human trafficking we must understand what the current routes are and also understand why they change. Although several pieces have been written on the topic of geographical routes[1] of Trafficking in Human Beings, the value of this paper lies in its state of the art research. The paper stems from study undertaken as part of the TRACE (TRafficking as A Criminal Enterprise) project, an EU funded venture aiming to research the business side of human trafficking.[2]

3. Global supply chains and Human Trafficking: an unequivocal problem.

Anastasia Koulouri and Alex Avramenko, both Abertay University, Dundee, UK.

E-mail: a.koulouri@abertay.ac.uka.avramenko@abertay.ac.uk

Globalisation creates opportunities for crime,[3] such as trafficking in human beings (THB), criminal entrepreneurship and profit.[4] THB is transnational in nature, involving countries of origin, transit and destination with -amongst other differences- diverse understanding and protection frameworks of human rights and personal data.[5] It requires a multiplicity of actors: recruiters, traffickers, facilitators, “consumers” of trafficked humans, and customers/users of products and services; with the added complexity of the nature of these actors’ relationships.[6][7] In the case of forced labour and supply chains, this picture is further complicated by the “entanglement” of legitimate, and less so, business practices.[8].

This paper will expand the understanding of THB beyond its relationship with criminal networks, and provide a fresh look on the issue in the context of increasing economic pressures on multinational cooperations, endeavouring to optimise their costs by innovating within the scope of supply chains. The antecedents of contemporary approaches to forced labour will be reviewed in the context of multinationals’ innovative efforts that can inadvertently enable THB and facilitate its increased uptake.

This paper will examine the challenges of understanding, preventing and disrupting THB within the context of an integrated security strategy across the EU and its particularities.  The use of trafficking schematics will be proposed for creating a rich picture of the actors, their roles and relationships; the process, its stages and their sequence, and its critical points; and for mapping trafficking routes and product provenance chains.  This method will enable analysts, law enforcers, decision makers and policy developers to acquire an enhanced conceptualisation of THB in global supply chains.

[1] See for example L. Shelley, Human Trafficking A Global Perspective, New York: Cambridge Univerisyt Press, 2010; United Nations  Office on Drugs and Crime, Global Report on Trafficking in Persons 2014, United Nations, Vienna, 2014.

[2] TRACE project, available at: trace-project.eu accessed 26th January 2015

[3] Findlay, M. (2008) Governing through Globalised Crime: Futures for international criminal justice.  UK:Willan Publishing (pp. 52)

[4] Winterdyk, J. & Reichel, P. (2010) “Human Trafficking: Issues and Perspectives”.  European Journal of Criminology 7(1): 5-10

[5] O’Neill, M. (2013) Trafficking in Human Beings and the European Neighbourhood Policy: New challenges for the EU Justice and Law Enforcement Framework”.  In M O’Neill, K Swinton, A Winter (eds) New challenges for the EU internal security. UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing (pp. 197)

[6] Finckenauer J.O. & Chin K-l (2010) Sex Trafficking: a target for situational crime prevention?.  In K Bullock, R V Clarke, N Tilley (eds) Situational Prevention of Organised Crimes. UK: Willan.

[7] Madsen, F. G. (2009) Transnational Organized Crime.  Oxon: Routlegde (pp. 43)

[8] Crane, A. (2013) “Modern Slavery as a Management Practice: Exploring the Conditions and Capabilities for Human Exploitation”.  Academy of Management Review 38(1):49–69.

(CANCELLED)1. The routes of human suffering: How point-source and destination-source mapping can help service providers and law enforcement agencies effectively combat human trafficking.

Benjamin Greer, Legal Office, Department of State Hospitals, California, USA.

E-mail: benjamingreer@hotmail.com

Human trafficking is one of the fastest growing international crimes in the world.  The US State Department estimates 800,000 to 900,000 people are trafficked annually across sovereign borders.  Today’s slavery is conducted by unscrupulous individuals who are often connected to organized criminal enterprises and transnational gangs.

Perpetrators of this heinous crime are not limited to single or “sole practitioners,” but often include a collaborative network of criminals to disguise their activity.  Traffickers rely on a network of clandestine routes to move their commodities with impunity.   As law enforcement agencies seek to retard the expansion of trafficking, it is imperative that they develop reliable mapping techniques.  Designing a reliable mapping system is a crucial step to designing an effective response and deploying a successful victim support system.  Creating mapping analytics is exceedingly difficult.  Traffickers are constantly changing the way they traffic and swiftly adapt to local environmental factors, exploiting limitations in the prevailing laws.

This presentation will examine current efforts to illustrate trafficking routes; and will demonstrate how the proprietary mapping analysis of point-source/destination-source mapping can help local law enforcement, governmental agencies and victim services providers effectively respond to the type and nature of trafficking to their specific geographical locale.

15.15

16.45

Research Session 5: Counter-Terrorism

Location: 1006 Old College

Chair: William Graham

1. David Lowe

The threat by Islamic State and similar groupings to the European Union member states’ security: Time to reconsider introducing the EU’s directive on the use of Passenger Name record data.

2. Rupali Jeswal

Existential danger to European civilization: An epidemic of radicalization.

3. Jose Maria Blanco and Jessica Cohen

Knowledge, the great challenge to deal with terrorism.

1. The threat by Islamic State and similar groupings to the European Union member states’ security: Time to reconsider introducing the EU’s directive on the use of Passenger Name record data.

David Lowe, Liverpool John Moores University, UK.

E-mail: D.Lowe@ljmu.ac.uk

Following the activities of Islamic State and other jihadist groups in Syria and Iraq, the threat posed the security of the European Union’s Member States has increased. We have witnessed Islamic State beheading western hostages as well as the genocide of Iraqi Shia Muslims and other minority groups in the region. The main danger these groups pose is when the estimated 3,000 radicalised European Union citizens that have gone to fight with these groups return to the country of their birth. Already four people in the Jewish Museum in Brussels were killed by an Islamic State member in May 2014. In October 2014 four UK citizens linked to Islamic State were arrested where the police claim these arrests prevented a major attack in the UK. The paper will argue that to assist policing agencies at border controls in tackling this terrorist threat, it is time for the EU to revisit and introduce the Directive on Passenger Name Records (PNR) (2011/0023). With sufficient data protection in place, the added information on PNR will be a great help to the relevant agencies in identifying at the earliest opportunity individuals that pose a threat to EU Member States’ security as they attempt to re-enter the EU.

2. Existential danger to European civilization: An epidemic of radicalization.

Rupali Jeswal, a) CENTRIC, Sheffield Hallam University, UK, b) ICPA, and c) RCPS (Romania Center for Prison Studies/West University of Timisoara)

E-mail: jrupali@icloud.com

“We are Middle East Cyber Army… hey France ready or not we are coming….#OPFRANCE will start on 15th of January”

(Cyber jihadist calling for #OPFRANCE to begin)

At this moment all narratives should be taken at face value as there are those who will taken upon the rhetoric and turn it in to action. European civilization is facing an existential danger, the deterrence strategies and counter measures should be crafted at all levels; from law enforcement to policy makers and the local community.

The head of Europol recently announced that up to 5000 people who have visited conflict zones pose a danger of carrying out jihadi violence. This blowback represents the highest terrorism threat in Europe.

When Khalid Sheik Mohammed and Osama Bin Laden encouraged jihadist in other countries to be self-starters and acquire the pre-requisite education to mount terrorist operations on their own volition it was based on a strategic point of view, that diffused and independent operatives would ensure risk-free action. To form proxy cells that can take orders safely over the Internet thus mitigating the chance of being discovered.

The “lure of jihad” and the “intended” and unintended” radicalization process towards recruitment is on a hyper-accelerated mode with hyper-targeted attacks in sight.

This presentation will use an evidence-based format to integrate practical and intelligent knowledge describing through various examples of case studies of radicalized cluster, the ever-evolving radicalization and recruitment tactics, psychology of recruiting terrorist, the trend of “personalization of attacks”, social-media arsenal, the inception point for radicalization and how extremism turns in to action. Counter-measures and deterrence strategies for law enforcement will be included especially focusing on the prisons, the breeding ground for radicalization.

3. Knowledge, the great challenge to deal with terrorism

José María Blanco Navarro

Head of the Center of Analysis and Foresight. Guardia Civil

E-mail: blanco.josemaria@gmail.com

Jéssica Cohen Villaverde

Intelligence Analyst. Private Sector.

E-mail: mail@jessicacohen.es

Radicalisation and recruitment to terrorism are two great challenges of our times of uncertainty. They could be faced through the improvement of knowledge and intelligence process. In our research we study the way these threats are being studied, with a critical point of view, in order to design a new model[1][2].

First of all we need to have a good definition of the terms: radicalisation and recruitment, but also about the approaches used in terrorism studies (traditional approach vs. critical studies[3]). Our model aims to allow the decision maker to have the best answers to design strategies, policies and actions in an uncertain world[4]. A broad definition of stakeholders (including university, think tanks, intelligence community, media, communities and minorities, citizens), and the integration of methods and technics of analysis (social sciences and intelligence techniques[5]), are the two pillars of the system, followed by periodic evaluations of the process of knowledge and intelligence generation, through quality checks and other criteria: opportunity, clarity, effectiveness, efficiency, integrity, availability, currency, completeness, relevancy and reliability.

[1] Cohen, J.; Blanco, J. M. (2014). The future of counter-terrorism in Europe. The need to be lost in the correct direction. European Journal of Future Research. Springer. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40309-014-0050-9

[2] Treverton, G. (2006). Intelligence for an age of terror. Cambridge University Press.

[3] For example, the debate between Sageman and Hoffman and other experts; the research of Magnus Ranstorp about critical studies; counter-terrorism policy evidence-based of Cynthia Lum;

[4] Some references: Manski, C. (2013). Public Policy in an Uncertain World. Harvard University Press; Khaneman, D. (2013). Thinking Fast and Slow. Farrar, Straus and Giroux; Taleb, N. (2014). Antifragile. Things that gain form disorder. Random House.

[5] Pherson, K. H.; Pherson, R. H. (2013). Critical Thinking for Strategic Intelligence. CQ Press.

Presentations: 20 minutes each.